|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2023
|Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities Disclosure [Abstract]
SPL has commodity derivatives consisting of natural gas supply contracts, including those under the IPM agreement, for the operation of the Liquefaction Project and associated economic hedges (collectively, the “Liquefaction Supply Derivatives”).
We recognize SPL’s derivative instruments as either assets or liabilities and measure those instruments at fair value. None of SPL’s derivative instruments are designated as cash flow or fair value hedging instruments, and changes in fair value are recorded within our Consolidated Statements of Operations to the extent not utilized for the commissioning process, in which case such changes are capitalized.
The following table shows the fair value of the derivative instruments that are required to be measured at fair value on a recurring basis, by the fair value hierarchy levels prescribed by GAAP (in millions):
We value the Liquefaction Supply Derivatives using a market or option-based approach incorporating present value techniques, as needed, which incorporates observable commodity price curves, when available, and other relevant data.
The fair value of the Liquefaction Supply Derivatives is predominantly driven by observable and unobservable market commodity prices and, as applicable to our natural gas supply contracts, our assessment of the associated events deriving fair value including, but not limited to, evaluation of whether the respective market exists from the perspective of market participants as infrastructure is developed.
We include a significant portion of our Liquefaction Supply Derivatives as Level 3 within the valuation hierarchy as the fair value is developed through the use of internal models which incorporate significant unobservable inputs. In instances where observable data is unavailable, consideration is given to the assumptions that market participants may use in valuing the asset or liability. To the extent valued using an option pricing model, we consider the future prices of energy units for unobservable periods to be a significant unobservable input to estimated net fair value. In estimating the future prices of energy units, we make judgments about market risk related to liquidity of commodity indices and volatility utilizing available market data. Changes in facts and circumstances or additional information may result in revised estimates and judgments, and actual results may differ from these estimates and judgments. We derive our volatility assumptions based on observed historical settled global LNG market pricing or accepted proxies for global LNG market pricing as well as settled domestic natural gas pricing. Such volatility assumptions also contemplate, as of the balance sheet date, observable forward curve data of such indices, as well as evolving available industry data and independent studies. In developing our volatility assumptions, we acknowledge that the global LNG industry is inherently influenced by events such as unplanned supply constraints, geopolitical incidents, unusual climate events including drought and uncommonly mild, by historical standards, winters and summers, and real or threatened disruptive operational impacts to global energy infrastructure. Our current estimate of volatility does not exclude the impact of otherwise rare events unless we believe market participants would exclude such events on account of their assertion that those events were specific to our company and deemed within our control.
The Level 3 fair value measurements of the natural gas positions within the Liquefaction Supply Derivatives could be materially impacted by a significant change in certain natural gas and international LNG prices. The following table includes quantitative information for the unobservable inputs for the Level 3 Liquefaction Supply Derivatives as of September 30, 2023:
(1)Unobservable inputs were weighted by the relative fair value of the instruments.
(2)Spread contemplates U.S. dollar-denominated pricing.
Increases or decreases in basis or pricing spreads, in isolation, would decrease or increase, respectively, the fair value of the Liquefaction Supply Derivatives.
The following table shows the changes in the fair value of the Level 3 Liquefaction Supply Derivatives (in millions):
(1)Does not include the realized value associated with derivative instruments that settle through physical delivery, as settlement is equal to contractually fixed price from trade date multiplied by contractual volume. See settlements line item in this table.
(2)Impact to earnings on deals that existed at the beginning of the period and continue to exist at the end of the period.
(3)Impact to earnings on deals that were entered into during the reporting period and continue to exist at the end of the period.
(4)Includes any day one gain (loss) recognized during the reporting period on deals that were entered into during the reporting period which continue to exist at the end of the period, in addition to any derivative contracts acquired from entities at a value other than zero on acquisition date, such as derivatives assigned or novated during the reporting period and continuing to exist at the end of the period.
(5)Roll-off in the current period of amounts recognized in our Consolidated Balance Sheets at the end of the previous period due to settlement of the underlying instruments in the current period.
(6)Transferred out of Level 3 as a result of observable market for the underlying natural gas purchase agreements.
All counterparty derivative contracts provide for the unconditional right of set-off in the event of default. We have elected to report derivative assets and liabilities arising from those derivative contracts with the same counterparty and the unconditional contractual right of set-off on a net basis. The use of derivative instruments exposes SPL to counterparty credit risk, or the risk that a counterparty will be unable to meet its commitments, in instances when the derivative instruments are in an asset position. Additionally, counterparties are at risk that SPL will be unable to meet its commitments in instances where the derivative instruments are in a liability position. We incorporate both SPL’s nonperformance risk and the respective counterparty’s nonperformance risk in fair value measurements depending on the position of the derivative. In adjusting the fair value of the derivative contracts for the effect of nonperformance risk, we have considered the impact of any applicable credit enhancements, such as collateral postings, set-off rights and guarantees.
Liquefaction Supply Derivatives
SPL holds Liquefaction Supply Derivatives which are primarily indexed to the natural gas market and international LNG indices. The firm terms of the Liquefaction Supply Derivatives range up to approximately 15 years, some of which commence upon the satisfaction of certain events or states of affairs.
The forward notional amount for the Liquefaction Supply Derivatives was approximately 5,642 TBtu and 5,972 TBtu as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, excluding notional amounts associated with extension options that were uncertain to be taken as of September 30, 2023.
The following table shows the effect and location of the Liquefaction Supply Derivatives recorded on our Consolidated Statements of Operations (in millions):
(1)Does not include the realized value associated with Liquefaction Supply Derivatives that settle through physical delivery. Fair value fluctuations associated with commodity derivative activities are classified and presented consistently with the item economically hedged and the nature and intent of the derivative instrument.
Fair Value and Location of Derivative Assets and Liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets
The following table shows the fair value and location of the Liquefaction Supply Derivatives on our Consolidated Balance Sheets (in millions):
(1)Does not include collateral posted by counterparties to us of $1 million as of September 30, 2023, which is included in other current liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets, and collateral posted with counterparties by us of $35 million as of December 31, 2022, which is included in margin deposits on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Consolidated Balance Sheets Presentation
The following table shows the fair value of the derivatives outstanding on a gross and net basis (in millions) for the derivative instruments that are presented on a net basis on our Consolidated Balance Sheets: